linux在DB运维时常用的命令有哪些

这篇文章主要介绍了linux在DB运维时常用的命令有哪些,具有一定借鉴价值,感兴趣的朋友可以参考下,希望大家阅读完这篇文章之后大有收获,下面让小编带着大家一起了解一下。# cat /etc/issue
CentOS release 6.5 (Final)
Kernel r on an m 我使用的测试机是CentOS 6.5,目前比较流行的linux发行版本有:Red Hat http://www.redhat.com (目前企业版最佳版本,不过商业服务收费,对操作系统安全负责)
Fedora http://fedoraproject.org (Red Hat的开发版本,更新速度快)
Mandriva http://mandriva.com
Novell SuSE http://novell.com/linux
Debian http://debian.org
Slackware http://slackware.com
Gentoo http://gentoo.org (性能较好)
Ubuntu http://ubuntu.com (基于Debian)
CentOS http://centos.org (免费服务器版本,意思就是专业盗版Red Hat,记住专业)
Ubuntu Kylin http://www.ubuntukylin.com (国产版本,基于Ubuntu,现在16.04貌似很友好)
Deepin https://www.deepin.org/ (国内第一个基于Debian的系统,社区支持相当友好发布了很多国内软件的linux版本,Ubuntu、Ubuntu Kylin都是其受益者,这个情操给满分)其次,我们肯定要看看CPU、硬盘大小、内存这些硬件信息了啥查看CPU信息(型号)
# cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep name | cut -f2 -d: | uniq -c
4 Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2420 0 @ 1.90GHz E5410 @ 2.33GHz
(看到有8个逻辑CPU, 也知道了CPU型号)
# cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep physical | uniq -c
4 physical id : 0 4 physical id : 1(说明实际上是两颗4核的CPU)
# getconf LONG_BIT
64
(说明当前CPU运行在32bit模式下, 但不代表CPU不支持64bit)
# cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep flags | grep ‘ lm ‘ | wc -l
4
(结果大于0, 说明支持64bit计算. lm指long mode, 支持lm则是64bit)
开发云主机域名 查看机器型号
# dmidecode | grep “Product Name”
查看网卡信息
# dmesg | grep -i eth
# df -lh
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root 50G 7.2G 40G 16% /
tmpfs 1.9G 68K 1.9G 1% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1 485M 40M 421M 9% /boot
/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_home 49G 7.8G 39G 17% /home 目前市面上CPU基本都是x86和PowerPC吧,特定机器可能会使用Sun公司的SPARC系列。
CPU内部含有微指令集,不同的微指令集会导致CPU工作效率的优势
CPU的频率:CPU每秒钟可以进行的工作次数
CPU频率3.0G表示这个CPU在一秒内可以进行3.0*10^9次工作
所以主频高的CPU性能不一定就好,还要看微指令集。

机器到手,最后最重要肯定是要有网络啥,不然玩不转呀。ifconfig
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:56:B3:6B:6D
inet addr:172.15.11.73 Bcast:172.15.11.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
inet6 addr: fe80::250:56ff:feb3:6b6d/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:40487206 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:791120 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:5193260758 (4.8 GiB) TX bytes:296331233 (282.6 MiB)

linux设置静态IP
cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
#vim ifcfg-eth0
DEVICE=eth0
HWADDR=00:50:56:B0:07:B6
TYPE=Ethernet
UUID=ceb36fa0-487e-4f8a-bba1-9f94728086e5
ONBOOT=yes
NM_CONTROLLED=yes
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=192.168.6.203
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
GATEWAY=192.168.6.2
DNS1=192.168.0.5 linux卸载多余启动项
第一种方法
1.首先列出系统中正在使用的内核:
# uname -a
2.查询系统中全部的内核:
# rpm -qa | grep kernel
3.将你想删除的内核删除掉:(例如,在我的系统中,我要删掉kernel-2.6.32-279.9.1.el6.x86_64的内核,需要把所有含有kernel-2.6.32-279.9.1.el6.x86_64字样的全部删掉)
#yum remove kernel-2.6.32-279.9.1.el6.x86_64
4.重启后就可以看到,内核被删掉了,同时多余的启动项也自动被删掉了。
第二种方法
手动修改/boot/grub/menu.lst 把多余的项删除。

linux刷新内存
清除页面缓存# sync; echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches清除目录项和inode # sync; echo 2 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_cachesc清除页面换粗 目录项和inode# sync; echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_cachesswap清理swapoff -a && swapon -a
干完上面的事,就来说我们要来完成的编译安装percona的任务了
首先是下载到最新的安装包#cd /home
# wget http://jaist.dl.sourceforge.net/project/boost/boost/1.59.0/boost_1_59_0.tar.gz
# wget xxxx.cmake-3.3.2.tar.gz
# wget xxxx.percona-server-5.7.13-6.tar.gz
# wget xxxx/lib_mysqludf_sys-master.zip 下载这么多安装,说明一下
MySQL currently requires boost_1_59_0
CMake 2.8.2 higher
这两个是编译percona-server-5.7.13-6的硬性要求,不然不给编译
CMake和boost_1_59_0安装编译都是很简单
CMake新的发行版本可能已经很高了,编译安装之前可以先查看一下,比CMake 2.8.2更新的版本可以不用安装也行了。# cmake –version
cmake version 2.8.12.2 CMake:
# ./bootstrap
# make&&make install
boost_1_59_0:
#tar -zxvf boost_1_59_0.tar.gz
#mv boost_1_59_0 /usr/local/boost
# cd /usr/local/boost
# ./bootstrap.sh
# ./b2 boost_1_59_0这个很伤,这个包好像很大,不过官方版本就集成boost_1_59_0的源码,percona好像还没。
照着前面写的步骤,然后慢慢的等就得了。这个编译坑,没个进度条。
gcc.compile.c++ bin.v2/libs/wave/build/gcc-4.4.7/release/link-static/threading-multi/cpplexer/re2clex/cpp_re.o
gcc.archive bin.v2/libs/wave/build/gcc-4.4.7/release/link-static/threading-multi/libboost_wave.a
common.copy stage/lib/libboost_wave.a
…failed updating 56 targets…
…skipped 6 targets…
…updated 1069 targets…
当完成到这一步就证明已经完成了boost_1_59_0的安装,这些都是准备工作。
现在来正式开始安装percona-server-5.7.13-6
①Set timezone(设置服务器的时区:亚洲上海)#Set timezone(设置服务器的时区:亚洲上海)
rm -rf /etc/localtime
ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia/Shanghai /etc/localtime
ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/New_York /etc/localtime(这个是美帝时间额)
# ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/New_York /etc/localtime
# date
Tue Aug 9 02:11:37 EDT 2016
# ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia/Shanghai /etc/localtime
# date
Tue Aug 9 14:11:47 CST 2016

②Remove MySQL if exists mysql (删除服务器上已存在MySQL,切记数据库备份)
service mysql stop
rpm -qa|grep mysql
rpm -e mysql
yum -y remove mysql-server mysql mysql-libs
因为很多机器到手的时候可能被yum安装了数据库,这个的提前处理一下
③常用依赖安装
centos:
yum -y install patch make cmake gcc gcc-c++ gcc-g77 flex bison file libtool libtool-libs autoconf kernel-devel libjpeg libjpeg-devel libpng libpng-devel libpng10 libpng10-devel gd gd-devel freetype freetype-devel libxml2 libxml2-devel zlib zlib-devel glib2 glib2-devel bzip2 bzip2-devel libevent libevent-devel ncurses ncurses-devel curl curl-devel e2fsprogs e2fsprogs-devel krb5 krb5-devel libidn libidn-devel openssl openssl-devel vim-minimal nano fonts-chinese gettext gettext-devel ncurses-devel gmp-devel pspell-devel unzip libcap diffutils
debian:
yum -y install build-essential gcc g++ make cmake autoconf automake re2c wget cron bzip2 libzip-dev libc6-dev file rcconf flex vim nano bison m4 gawk less make cpp binutils diffutils unzip tar bzip2 libbz2-dev libncurses5 libncurses5-dev libtool libevent-dev libpcre3 libpcre3-dev libpcrecpp0 libssl-dev zlibc openssl libsasl2-dev libxml2 libxml2-dev libltdl3-dev libltdl-dev libmcrypt-dev zlib1g zlib1g-dev libbz2-1.0 libbz2-dev libglib2.0-0 libglib2.0-dev libpng3 libfreetype6 libfreetype6-dev libjpeg62 libjpeg62-dev libjpeg-dev libpng-dev libpng12-0 libpng12-dev curl libcurl3 libmhash3 libmhash-dev libpq-dev libpq5 gettext libncurses5-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev libjpeg-dev libpng12-dev libxml2-dev zlib1g-dev libfreetype6 libfreetype6-dev libssl-dev libcurl3 libcurl4-openssl-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev mcrypt libcap-dev diffutils ca-certificates debian-keyring debian-archive-keyring
ubuntu:
apt-get -yf install build-essential gcc g++ make cmake automake autoconf re2c wget cron bzip2 libzip-dev libc6-dev file rcconf flex vim nano bison m4 gawk less make cpp binutils diffutils unzip tar bzip2 libbz2-dev unrar p7zip libncurses5-dev libncurses5 libncurses5-dev libncurses5-dev libtool libevent-dev libpcre3 libpcre3-dev libpcrecpp0 libssl-dev zlibc openssl libsasl2-dev libltdl3-dev libltdl-dev libmcrypt-dev zlib1g zlib1g-dev libbz2-1.0 libbz2-dev libglib2.0-0 libglib2.0-dev libpng3 libjpeg62 libjpeg62-dev libjpeg-dev libpng-dev libpng12-0 libpng12-dev curl libcurl3 libmhash3 libmhash-dev libpq-dev libpq5 gettext libncurses5-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev libjpeg-dev libpng12-dev libxml2-dev zlib1g-dev libfreetype6 libfreetype6-dev libssl-dev libcurl3 libcurl4-openssl-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev mcrypt libcap-dev diffutils ca-certificates debian-keyring debian-archive-keyring
依赖很多,不一定每个都会用到,不过也没有就当更新一下软件吧
④MySQL账户创建
groupadd mysql
useradd -s /sbin/nologin -M -g mysql mysql

⑤创建MySQL数据库存放目录,日志目录也要单独给磁盘这样I/O分开压力会小一些,这里就放一起了
mkdir -p /home/database
chown -R mysql:mysql /home/database
⑥预编译camke
# cmake . -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql
-DSYSCONFDIR=/etc
-DENABLED_PROFILING=1
-DMYSQL_DATADIR=/home/database
-DMYSQL_TCP_PORT=3306
-DWITH_MYISAM_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITH_PARTITION_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITH_CSV_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITH_EXTRA_CHARSETS=gbk,gb2312,utf8,ascii,utf8mb4
-DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci
-DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8
-DENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE=1
-DWITH_EDITLINE=bundled
-DWITH_ZLIB=system
-DWITH_BOOST=/usr/local/boost如果之前有出错先清理错误编译日志make clean
rm CMakeCache.txt
完成这个步骤后,再cmake
cmake . -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql
-DSYSCONFDIR=/etc
-DENABLED_PROFILING=1
-DMYSQL_DATADIR=/home/database
-DMYSQL_TCP_PORT=3306
-DWITH_MYISAM_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITH_PARTITION_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITH_CSV_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITH_EXTRA_CHARSETS=gbk,gb2312,utf8,ascii,utf8mb4
-DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci
-DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8
-DENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE=1
-DWITH_EDITLINE=bundled
-DWITH_ZLIB=system
-DWITH_BOOST=/usr/local/boost
— INSTALL perconaserverclient.pc lib/pkgconfig
— CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE: RelWithDebInfo
— COMPILE_DEFINITIONS: _GNU_SOURCE;_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64;HAVE_CONFIG_H
— CMAKE_C_FLAGS: -Wall -Wextra -Wformat-security -Wvla -Wwrite-strings -Wdeclaration-after-statement
— CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS: -Wall -Wextra -Wformat-security -Wvla -Woverloaded-virtual -Wno-unused-parameter
— CMAKE_C_FLAGS_RELWITHDEBINFO: -O3 -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -g -fabi-version=2 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -fno-strict-aliasing -DDBUG_OFF
— CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS_RELWITHDEBINFO: -O3 -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 -g -fabi-version=2 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -fno-strict-aliasing -DDBUG_OFF
— Configuring done
— Generating done
— Build files have been written to: /home/percona-server-5.7.13-6 ⑦编译
开始编译安装
make -j`grep processor /proc/cpuinfo | wc -l` && make install
这个100%安装完成后
cp support-files/my-default.cnf /etc/my.cnf
ln -sf /usr/local/mysql/lib/mysql /usr/lib/mysql
ln -sf /usr/local/mysql/include/mysql /usr/include/mysql
ln -sf /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql /usr/bin/mysql
ln -sf /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqldump /usr/bin/mysqldump
ln -sf /usr/local/mysql/bin/myisamchk /usr/bin/myisamchk
ln -sf /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe /usr/bin/mysqld_safe
这里搞这么多链接,也是为了不搞环境变量
cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql
chmod 700 /etc/init.d/mysql
chkconfig –add mysql
chkconfig –level 35 mysql on
进去修改一下这两个,其余的就是配置文件的事情了,这里暂时不讨论
# These are commonly set, remove the # and set as required.
basedir = /usr/local/mysql
datadir = /home/database
# port = …..
# server_id = …..
# socket = …..
⑧初始化数据库,并启动数据库修改掉随机密码
安装完成后,初始化数据库
[root@DB-73 mysql]# rm -rf /home/database/*
[root@DB-73 mysql]# /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld –initialize –user=mysql –basedir=/usr/local/mysql –datadir=/home/database
2016-08-05T07:21:48.113959Z 0 [Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use –explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details).
2016-08-05T07:21:48.114054Z 0 [Warning] ‘NO_ZERO_DATE’, ‘NO_ZERO_IN_DATE’ and ‘ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO’ sql modes should be used with strict mode. They will be merged with strict mode in a future release.
2016-08-05T07:21:48.114066Z 0 [Warning] ‘NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER’ sql mode was not set.
2016-08-05T07:21:53.194657Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: New log files created, LSN=45790
2016-08-05T07:21:54.195562Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: Creating foreign key constraint system tables.
2016-08-05T07:21:54.469438Z 0 [Warning] No existing UUID has been found, so we assume that this is the
first time that this server has been started. Generating a new UUID: 4941b58f-5add-11e6-8c4c-005056b36b6d.
2016-08-05T07:21:54.500735Z 0 [Warning] Gtid table is not ready to be used. Table ‘mysql.gtid_executed’ cannot be opened.
2016-08-05T07:21:54.502227Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: aXx! # /etc/init.d/mysql start
Starting MySQL (Percona Server).. [ OK ]
# mysql -uroot -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or g.
Your MySQL connection id is 2
Server version: 5.7.13-6
Copyright (c) 2009-2016 Percona LLC and/or its affiliates
Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
Type ‘help;’ or ‘h’ for help. Type ‘c’ to clear the current input statement.
mysql> use mysql;
mysql> alter user ‘root’@’localhost’ identified by ‘jiayifei’;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql>quit
⑨加装UDF
# cat lib_mysqludf_sys-master/lib_mysqludf_sys.sql
[root@DB-73 lib_mysqludf_sys-master]# gcc -DMYSQL_DYNAMIC_PLUGIN -fPIC -Wall -I/usr/local/mysql/include -I. -shared lib_mysqludf_sys.c -o /usr/local/mysql/lib/mysql/plugin/lib_mysqludf_sys.so
[root@DB-73 lib_mysqludf_sys-master]# mysql -uroot -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or g.
Your MySQL connection id is 4
Server version: 5.7.13-6 Source distribution
Copyright (c) 2009-2016 Percona LLC and/or its affiliates
Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
Type ‘help;’ or ‘h’ for help. Type ‘c’ to clear the current input statement.
mysql> DROP FUNCTION IF EXISTS lib_mysqludf_sys_info;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
mysql> DROP FUNCTION IF EXISTS sys_get;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
…… ⑩#添加防火墙
防火墙的3306端口默认没有开启,若要远程访问,需要开启这个端口
打开/etc/sysconfig/iptables
在“-A INPUT –m state –state NEW –m tcp –p –dport 22 –j ACCEPT”,下添加:
-A INPUT -m state –state NEW -m tcp -p -dport 3306 -j ACCEPT
然后保存,并关闭该文件,在终端内运行下面的命令,刷新防火墙配置:
service iptables restart CentOS 7中默认使用Firewalld做防火墙,所以修改iptables后,在重启系统后,根本不管用。
Firewalld中添加端口方法如下:
firewall-cmd –zone=public –add-port=3306/tcp –permanent
firewall-cmd –reload感谢你能够认真阅读完这篇文章,希望小编分享的“linux在DB运维时常用的命令有哪些”这篇文章对大家有帮助,同时也希望大家多多支持开发云,关注开发云行业资讯频道,更多相关知识等着你来学习!

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